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内容提示: AP® European History 2008 Scoring Guidelines Form B The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,400 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500...

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AP® European History 2008 Scoring Guidelines Form B The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,400 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, AP Central, Advanced Placement Program, AP, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. All other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the online home for AP teachers: apcentral.collegeboard.com. AP® EUROPEAN HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1—Document-Based Question Explain the reasons for the adoption of a new calendar in revolutionary France and analyze reactions to it in the period 1789 to 1806. BASIC CORE: 1 point each to a total of 6 points 1. Has acceptable thesis (thesis may not simply restate the question). An acceptable thesis is based on the documents, appropriately addresses and explains the reasons for adopting a new calendar, and analyzes the reactions to it between 1789 and 1806. The thesis may appear at the end of the essay. Examples Unacceptable: The National Convention adopted a new calendar to replace the Gregorian calendar. There were many reasons for the adoption of a new calendar, and many reactions to it in the period 1789 to 1806. Acceptable: The National Convention adopted a new calendar to get more workdays out of the peasants, and the clergy and peasants didn’t like it. 2. Discusses a majority of the documents individually and specifically. The student must use at least six documents, even if used incorrectly, by reference to anything in the box. Documents cannot be referenced together in order to get credit for this point (e.g., “Documents 1, 4, and 6 suggest …”). Documents need not be cited by number or by name. 3. Demonstrates understanding of the basic meaning of a majority of the documents (may misinterpret no more than one). A student may not significantly misinterpret more than one document. A major misinterpretation is one that leads to an inaccurate grouping and/or a false conclusion. (Saying that the Abbé de Sieyès represents the Church is not a major error since no outside information is required for the document-based question.) 4. Supports the thesis with appropriate interpretations of a majority of the documents. Students must use six documents to explain reasons for the change AND analyze the reactions to that change; even if the thesis deals with only one part of the question, the documents used must address both parts of the question. Some general categories of reasons Response to the people: 1 Opposition to ignorance and fanaticism: 2 Symbolize equality of the Republic: 2, 6 Anti-tradition: 3 Pro-reason: 4, 5 Anti-Church/clerical: 3, 10 Promotion of efficiency: 1, 5 Some general categories of reactions Supportive of new calendar Government officials and writers in 1790s: 2, 9 Villagers: 6 © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® EUROPEAN HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1—Document-Based Question (continued) Not supportive of new calendar Church: 3, 4 Peasants: 7 Conservative Girondins: 8 Napoleonic officials, 1806: 11 Ineffective: 9, 10 Note: A student cannot earn this point if no credit was awarded for point 1 (appropriate thesis). 5. Analyzes bias or point of view in at least three documents. The student must make a reasonable effort to explain why a particular source expresses the stated view by: • Relating authorial point of view to the author’s place in the political or social arena OR • Evaluating the reliability of a source OR • Grouping documents in a way that explicitly and correctly shows awareness of point of view OR • Recognizing that different kinds of documents serve different purposes OR • Analyzing the intent or “tone” of the documents; must be well developed Note: Mere attribution of sources does not constitute analysis of bias or point of view. 6. Analyzes documents by grouping them in at least three appropriate groups. (A group must have two documents.) A fallacious grouping (e.g., merchant views) receives no credit. A group must serve as a valid tool of analysis. In addition to those listed above, groupings and corresponding documents may include the following (list is not exhaustive): • Government officials: 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10 • Lovers of morality: 2, 6, 11 • Citizen comments: 1, 6, 7 • Supporters of reason: 2, 5, 9 • Opposition documents: 3, 7, 8, 11 • Chronological changes in reaction: 1, 2, 3, 10, 11 • Favorable comments: 1, 2, 5, 6, 9 • Reasons for change: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10 EXPANDED CORE: 1–3 points to a total of 9 points Expands beyond the basic score of 1–6 points. A student must earn 6 points in the basic core area before earning points in the expanded area. A student earns points to the degree to which he or she does some or all of the following: • Has a clear, analytical, and comprehensive thesis • Uses all or almost all documents • Addresses all parts of the question thoroughly • Uses the documents persuasively as evidence • Shows understanding of nuances in the documents • Analyzes point of view or bias in at least four documents cited in the essay © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® EUROPEAN HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1—Document-Based Question (continued) • Analyzes the documents in additional ways (e.g., develops additional groupings) Brings in relevant “outside” historical content, although most of the essay should be based on the documents • © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® EUROPEAN HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 Contrast late-nineteenth-century European attitudes and policies about race to those after 1950. 9–8 Points Thesis is clearly stated and addresses BOTH attitudes and policies in BOTH periods. • Organization is clear, consistently followed, and effective in support of the argument. • Essay is well balanced; attitudes and policies in BOTH periods are covered. • Discusses at least two points of contrast for each period with at least several (two to three) specific examples. • May contain some minor errors that do not detract from the argument (for example, Israel was established in 1950). 7–6 Points Thesis is clearly stated and addresses BOTH attitudes and policies in BOTH periods but may emphasize one period over the other. • Organization is clear and effective in support of the argument but not consistently followed. • Essay is balanced overall; both periods AND attitudes and policies are discussed, although one might be discussed more superficially or in less detail. • Discusses at least two points of contrast for each period with at least one supporting piece of evidence for each. • May contain several minor errors or a major error that detracts from the argument. 5–4 Points Thesis is clearly stated but might only address one aspect of the question. • Organization is apparent but is ineffective or inconsistently followed. • Essay shows imbalance: discusses either attitudes or policies in both periods, or discusses attitudes and policies in both periods superficially. • Most of the major assertions in the essay are supported by at least one piece of relevant evidence. • May contain major errors or misleading overgeneralizations that detract from the argument. • May contain irrelevant information (the slave trade, the Holocaust, Hitler, the United States Civil Rights Movement). 3–2 Points Invalid or irrelevant thesis, or the thesis simply restates the question. • Organization is unclear and ineffective. • Essay shows serious imbalance: only one period is discussed adequately, and either attitudes or policies are ignored. • Includes only one or two major assertions about one of the periods. • Offers little factual support or specific examples. • May contain several major errors that detract from the argument. • May contain irrelevant information. • • • • © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® EUROPEAN HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 (continued) 1–0 Points • No discernable attempt at a thesis. Poorly organized. Tends to be a rant against the evils of racism, or entirely off task (for example, an essay on the slave trade). Ignores major aspects of the question. Off task chronologically and/or geographically. Little or no supporting evidence is used. Contains numerous major errors and irrelevant information. • • • • • • © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® EUROPEAN HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 Historical Background This question asks how European attitudes and policies about race were different after 1950 from attitudes and policies in the late nineteenth century. To answer this question a student would need to think about what those attitudes were in the two different times and contrast them. A student would not need to explain how those attitudes were alike, although the stronger essays might do so. The simplest essay might list accurately the attitudes and policies in each period and describe the differences. Textbook Material Material in this section is derived from the following texts: Chambers et al., The Western Experience (9th edition, 2007) Kagan, The Western Heritage (9th edition, 2007) Kishlansky, Civilization in the West (7th edition, 2008) Noble et al., Western Civilization: Beyond Boundaries (4th edition, 2007) Palmer et al., A History of the Modern World (12th edition, 2007) Most texts do not talk about “race” in the late nineteenth century, so a student would need to remember that anti-Semitism would fall into this category and call up knowledge of Social Darwinism as well. When talking about the period after 1950, a student would have to resist any automatic response concerning race in the United States and think about decolonization, including the decline of the British Empire and the French withdrawal from Algeria, as well as the influx of immigrants into Europe. The best texts for this question are Kishlansky, Chambers, and Palmer. Noble brings in some additional characters in the nineteenth century (Mary Kingsley and her discussion of African difference, not inferiority, and Edward Tylor and Paul Broca and their work in anthropology and evolution). Kagan joins Noble in placing Arthur de Gobineau and H. S. Chamberlain as anti-Semites and racists writing in the late nineteenth century. Late Nineteenth Century Herbert Spencer and Charles Darwin: Social Darwinism and “survival of the fittest,” equating cultural with racial superiority and used as a rationale for the colonial scramble and European Imperialism. • Rudyard Kipling and the “white man’s burden.” • Anthropology identifies racial differences and scientifically reinforces Darwin. • Anti-Semitism: institutionalized persecutions and massacres (pogroms), even though the Jews were given religious and civil rights in the mid-nineteenth century. Professional and intellectual success leads to mass antipathy among the European population, and Jews were blamed for economic problems of the period—Dreyfus Affair, Zionism, Theodor Herzl, BUT not the Holocaust. • Off task: slavery, the slave trade, Nazism. Post-1950 • Guest workers and former British Empire citizens: discrimination in schools, even in birth countries. Post-1973 oil crisis attempts to restrict and/or control foreign workers. • In Germany, third- and fourth-generation foreign workers (especially Muslims and Turks) denied right of naturalization (“guest workers”/“Gastarbeiter”). • France: police discrimination and identity controls, especially of North African Arabs and Vietnamese. Violence in Algeria. Non-whites from former colonies. • © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® EUROPEAN HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 Historical Background (continued) Great Britain: ghetto riots in 1980-81. British Empire decolonization: Africa, Asia, Caribbean. Non-whites from former colonies in Britain, France, etc. Anti-Semitism weakened in postwar Europe. Some racist reaction (neo-Nazis, skinheads) but generally anti-racist policies from 1990 on. Soviet Union: Chambers mentions Stalin, Trofim Lysenko, and anti-Semitism. Off task: Hitler, Nazis, Japanese internment camps, United States (civil rights, Ku Klux Klan, Martin Luther King, Jr., etc.). • • • • • • © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® EUROPEAN HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 3 Analyze the ways in which TWO of the following groups challenged British liberalism between 1880 and 1914. Feminists Irish nationalists Socialists 9–8 Points Thesis is clearly stated and addresses two groups with reference to liberalism. • Organization is clear, consistently followed, and effective in support of the argument. • The essay offers an analysis of the challenges BOTH groups posed to British liberalism. • The essay demonstrates an understanding of the challenges to British liberalism. • Several pieces of relevant evidence are offered in support of each group. • May contain minor errors that do not detract from the argument. 7–6 Points Thesis is clearly stated and addresses two groups, although one group might be treated more superficially. • The essay demonstrates an understanding of the challenges to British liberalism, even superficially. • Organization is clear and effective in support of the argument but not consistently followed. • Essay is balanced, although one group might be discussed in greater detail. • At least one piece of relevant evidence is offered in support of each group. • May contain a major error or several minor errors that detract from the argument. 5–4 Points Thesis is relevant and clearly stated but might refer to only one group. • Organization is clear and effective in support of the argument but not consistently followed. • Essay shows some imbalance: the two groups might be discussed appropriately but not in relation to liberalism, or the two groups’ relation to liberalism might be discussed superficially. • Most of the major assertions in the essay are supported by least one piece of relevant evidence. • May contain a few major errors that detract from the argument. 3–2 Points No clear thesis or a thesis that merely repeats/paraphrases the prompt. • Organization is unclear and ineffective. • Essay shows serious imbalance: only one group may be discussed, or there is no discussion of liberalism. • Only one or two major assertions are supported by relevant evidence. • May contain several major errors that detract from the argument. • • • • © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® EUROPEAN HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 3 (continued) 1–0 Points • No thesis or a thesis that is off task. No discernable organization. Only one of the groups is discussed superficially, or neither of the groups or liberalism are mentioned. Little or no supporting evidence is used. May contain numerous errors that detract from the argument. • • • • © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® EUROPEAN HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 3 Historical Background This question asks students to present some specific information about two of the three groups of people listed and to relate those groups to “British liberalism.” This suggests that students need to know and indicate in some fashion an awareness of the principles of “classical British liberalism,” although the question does not require them to list those characteristics. Perhaps even more simply, students will also need to have a somewhat sophisticated understanding of the meaning of the word “challenged.” A simple essay might list some ways two groups opposed the government. A more sophisticated essay might generalize from specific information and form a thesis that encompasses both groups (e.g., “All these ‘outsiders,’ whether successful in achieving their own goals or not, transformed the classical liberal limited government into a ‘welfare state’ through unparliamentary, usually violent, means”). Few essays go beyond broad generalizations. Any attention to (correct) detail is likely to move the essay into the “stronger” category. Textbook Material Hunt, The Making of the West (2nd edition, 2005) Kagan, The Western Heritage (9th edition, 2007) Merriman, Modern Europe from the Renaissance to the Present (2nd edition, 2004) Noble et al., Western Civilization: Beyond Boundaries (4th edition, 2007) Palmer, A History of the Modern World (12th edition, 2007) Spielvogel, Western Civilization Since 1300 (6th edition, 2006) Palmer expresses the changes in British liberalism caused by all three of these groups. Violence replaced parliamentary means for outsider groups; nationalism increased over property rights; laissez-faire was limited by humanitarianism. Feminists: primarily challenged paternalism of British liberalism and (as suggested by Hunt) male domination of property and politics. Some texts (Merriman and Palmer in particular) give more theoretical background. During the nineteenth century women received greater rights of custody, control over property, and access to some professions. As other groups, including rural males, were granted parliamentary means to solve economic and civil rights issues, women (systematically excluded by liberals) saw suffrage as a necessity. Merriman says women’s demands were opposed by liberals who (citing scientific opinion) believed women were less intelligent and less able to understand issues. Radicals and liberals also believed women would be inclined to listen to clerical recommendations. Texts discuss the internal conflict between moderate and radical women’s groups as the movement became progressively more violent (from Kagan’s description of Millicent Fawcett and the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Society to Emmeline Pankhurst’s Women’s Social and Political Union [WSPU], which bombed David Lloyd George’s house and was repressed by Herbert Henry Asquith’s policies). The right to vote was granted in 1918 only to independent women who owned property as a reward for service in World War I. Mary Wollstonecraft and John Stuart Mill are mentioned as theorists. • 1900: International Women’s Suffrage Alliance. • 1903: Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU). • 1903: Emmeline Pankhurst leads radical wing of WSPU; violent confrontation. • 1903: Beginning of violent protests, acid on golf greens, acts of vandalism. • 1903: Beginning of mass arrests and suffragette hunger strikes. • 1905: Bombing of David Lloyd George’s home by WSPU. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® EUROPEAN HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 3 Historical Background (continued) • 1907: Women may serve in local government. 1913: Public suicide of Emily Davison at Epson Downs. • Irish nationalists: challenged liberal support for self-determination and individual rights in conflict with the rights of property. Most texts see the Irish nationalist goal of Home Rule as part of the larger “Irish Question.” A solution to Irish discontent was always a goal of William Gladstone and of many liberals. In 1886 the liberals succeeded in disestablishing the Anglican Church. However, Gladstone’s efforts were thwarted by liberals who wanted to protect the rights of Irish landowners. In this case, two British liberal values, self-determination and property rights, clashed. The Irish nationalist response to liberals was to create an increasingly militant organization from the merger of the Irish Land League and the Irish Republican Brotherhood in 1879. The conflict within the Liberal Party eventually led to the creation of a Labour party, as Liberal Unionists split on the Irish Home Rule issues. Home Rule passed in the Commons several times and was vetoed by the House of Lords, but it finally succeeded in 1911 after the Parliament Act of 1911 limited the veto power of the Lords. Home Rule was suspended by the impending World War, and it was not until 1921 (after a guerrilla civil war) that the Irish Free State was created. • 1879: Beginning of Irish farmers’ land war against absentee English aristocracy. • 1879: Irish Land League supported the farmers’ land war. • 1880: “Boycott” entered the English language, as Irish Land League takes on Captain Boycott. • 1880: Charles Parnell (Liberal Irish Protestant) began to push for Home Rule. • 1882: British officials hacked to death in Phoenix Park, Dublin. • 1913: Formation of the Irish Volunteers. • 1919: Creation of the Irish Republican Army (IRA). Socialists: challenged liberal philosophy of laissez-faire and limited government action in social issues. All texts point out that British socialism was unrelated to Marxism or other international radical movements. Merriman identifies British socialists as reform socialists interested in increasing political participation in order to pass legislation to improve working conditions. They were willing to cooperate with other parties, notably the Fabian Society, in favor of gradual change to improve living standards, and H. M. Hyndman’s Social Democratic Federation. Spielvogel, Kagan, and Noble especially describe the political changes in response to socialist demands. In 1901 the trade unions and the Fabians created the Labour Party after the Taff Vale decision making trade unions responsible for business losses caused by labor strikes. By 1906 the Liberal Party (challenged by the trade unions, Fabians, and the threat of a new Labour Party [1901]) began to support social reform such as retirement pension, health care, income tax, and death duties. It was Lloyd George’s efforts at social reform that led to the elimination of the veto power of the House of Lords. • 1884: Fabian Society • 1893: Independent Labour Party • 1899: Thomas R. Steels and the Trade Union Congress • 1901: English Labour Party © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® EUROPEAN HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 4 Analyze the similarities and differences in the methods used by Cavour and Bismarck to bring about the unification of Italy and Germany, respectively. 9–8 Points Thesis is clearly stated and addresses BOTH statesmen and compares and contrasts their methods of unification. • Organization is clear, consistently followed, and effective in support of the argument. • Essay is well balanced; the similarities and differences of both Cavour’s and Bismarck’s efforts are correctly described. • Evenly compares and contrasts the methods of Cavour and Bismarck. • Uses multiple examples to support the analysis of the similarities and differences. • May contain some minor errors that do not detract from the argument (examples: calling the Seven Weeks’ War the Seven Years’ War; saying that Bismarck took over Denmark). 7–6 Points Thesis is clearly stated and addresses BOTH statesmen and compares and contrasts their methods of unification, although more attention may be paid to one aspect of the question. • Organization is clear and effective in support of the argument but not consistently followed. • Essay is somewhat balanced, though the treatment of similarities and differences might be uneven. • Contains at least two or three specific examples to support the analysis of the similarities and the differences. • May contain several minor errors or one major error that detracts from the argument. 5–4 Points Thesis is clearly stated, but not fully responsive to the question; it might focus on either similarities or differences. • Organization is clear and effective in support of the argument but not consistently followed. • Essay shows imbalance; the methods of either Cavour OR Bismarck may be discussed superficially. • The analysis of the methods of either Cavour OR Bismarck might be supported with minimal examples and little factual support. • May contain major errors or misleading overgeneralizations that detract from the argument. 3–2 Points The thesis is not clearly stated or just restates the question. • Organization is unclear and ineffective. • Essay shows serious imbalance; either just the similarities OR just the differences are discussed. • Offers little factual support for analysis. • May contain several major errors that detract from the argument. 1–0 Points No discernable attempt at a thesis. • Poorly organized. • One or none of the major topics suggested by the prompt is mentioned. • Little or no supporting evidence is used. • May contain numerous errors that detract from the argument. • • • • • © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® EUROPEAN HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 4 Historical Background This question asks students to compare and contrast the methods used by Cavour and Bismarck. In order to answer this question, students need to know some specific facts about the unification process for each country. The stronger essays may generalize from these processes to some principles of state-building. Textbook Material Burns et al., Western Civilizations (9th edition, 1980) Kishlansky, Civilization in the West (7th edition, 2008) Merriman, Modern Europe from the Renaissance to the Present (2nd edition, 2004) Noble et al., Western Civilization: Beyond Boundaries (4th edition, 2007) Palmer et al., A History of the Modern World (12th edition, 2007) Spielvogel, Western Civilization Since 1300 (6th edition, 2006) This is a mainstream question. All texts discuss this topic and give good detail about the process. Kishlansky, Noble, and (to a lesser extent) Palmer explicitly compare the methods of Cavour and Bismarck, suggesting that both were opportunists as well as realists compelled by Realpolitik. Both used diplomacy, but Bismarck had greater access to military force while Cavour cunningly got others (France) to use their military for his ends. Burns and Spielvogel emphasize the similarities in their methods. Merriman is less concerned with the agency of Cavour and Bismarck and more interested in the forces at work and the situation in Europe at the time. Cavour was an opportunist who achieved unification by manipulation of diplomacy and international events. He used his influence to achieve liberal administrative reforms in the government of Piedmont-Sardinia and entered the Crimean War (1853-56) in order to sit at the peace conference. An alliance with France and Napoleon III against Austria gained him Lombardy in 1850, and subsequent plebiscites enabled other central Italian states to join Piedmont-Sardinia. Cavour was a shrewd political tactician, supporting a liberal parliamentary government with an anticlerical policy. Other small Italian states sought annexation with Piedmont-Sardinia. In southern Italy Cavour’s liberal goals persuaded the followers of Giuseppe Garibaldi in Sicily and Naples to join with Piedmont-Sardinia to create a unified state. After Cavour’s death, Italy gained Venetia in 1866 through an alliance with Prussia, and in 1870, when Napoleon III was under attack from Prussia, took Rome. Bismarck is described as a ruthless chess master, a Junker who joined with the liberals to gain a common end (Kishlansky). He did not just use wars to attain his goals; he provoked them. Palmer, in detail, describes Bismarck’s technique. In 1864 Bismarck joined with Austria to challenge Denmark for Schleswig-Holstein with Russian support, since he had supported Russia the previous year during the Polish rebellion. He reformed the German Confederation with a parliament and universal suffrage and reinforced the Zollverein customs union, which was led by Prussia and excluded Austria. In 1866 he challenged Austria over Schleswig-Holstein, fighting the Seven Weeks’ War to exclude Austria from a united Germany. In 1867 Bismarck annexed several German states to create the North German Confederation. Alsace and some of Lorraine were added as some of the spoils of the Franco–Prussian War (1870-71). The Zollverein and the military were the backbones of Bismarck’s united Germany with its old military order and economic modernization. He undermined his opposition by using the masses against the private interests of the nobility and the Church and even negotiating with socialists and incorporating some of their policies. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® EUROPEAN HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 4 Historical Background (continued) Key Dates in Italian Unification 1848: Mazzini and “Young Italy.” 1849: France sends troops to Rome to protect the Pope. 1852: Cavour becomes prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia. 1854: Crimean War begins (ends in 1856); Piedmont sides with France and Great Britain. 1856: Peace of Paris ends Crimean War. 1858: Treaty of Plombières (France and Piedmont-Sardinia). 1859: Austrian declaration of war against Piedmont-Sardinia. 1859: Battles of Magenta and Solferino. 1860: Treaty of Turin. 1860: Garibaldi campaigns in Sicily and southern Italy. 1861: All-Italian parliament with the exception of Rome and Venetia. 1866: Prussian–Italian military alliance. 1866: Italy annexes Venetia. 1870: France pulls out of Rome. Key Dates in German Unification 1834: Zollverein (customs union of German states) formed, without Austria. 1848: Frankfurt parliament; “Kleindeutsch” versus “Grossdeutsch” debate; abortive liberal revolutions in the German states. 1848: First Schleswig–Holstein crisis. 1854: Crimean War begins (ends in 1856). 1856: Peace of Paris (ends the Crimean War). 1862: Bismarck becomes Prussian prime minister. 1863: Polish revolts against Russia. 1864: Second Schleswig–Holstein crisis. 1864: Prussian/Austrian–Danish War. 1864: Peace of Vienna. 1866: Prussian–Italian military alliance. 1866: Prussian–Austrian War (Brothers’ War or Seven Weeks’ War). 1866: Peace of Prague. 1867: Northern German Confederation, without Austria. 1869: Leopold, Spanish crisis. 1870: Ems Telegram; outbreak of Franco–Prussian War. 1870: Battle of Sedan; Siege of Paris. 1871: Treaty of Frankfurt. 1871: Establishment of the Second Reich, Hall of Mirrors, Versailles. 1873: Bismarck begins Kulturkampf against Roman Catholic influence. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® EUROPEAN HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 5 Analyze the reasons for the decline of the Holy Roman Empire as a force in European politics in t...

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